We share findings from the research in lots of different formats. Our aim is to reach a diverse audience to promote more positive visions of young fatherhood.
On this page you can access our outputs and learn more about our work with young fathers and the multi-agency professionals who champion them.
Our findings are reported in a variety of formats to enable access for all. These include:
Books and book chapters
The COVID-19 pandemic affected everyone – but, for some, existing social inequalities were exacerbated, and this created a vital need for research. This includes young fathers and the professionals who support them.
This book synthesises the challenges of researching during COVID-19 to improve future policy and practice.
You can view the book open access!
Anna Tarrant’s revealing research explores
Drawing on pioneering multigenerational research, Fathering and Poverty considers the dynamics of men’s caring responsibilities in low-income families’ lives. Illuminating aspects of care within economic hardship that often go unseen, it deepens our understanding of masculinities and family life and the policies and practices that support or undermine men’s participation.
Available for purchase here!
This book explores the complex, evolving relationships between men, masculinities, and social welfare in contemporary context.
The collection constitutes an up-to-date account of the gendered and social implications of policy and practice change for men, and their inherent contradictions and complexities, tracing both stability and change over the past 25 years.
Available for purchase here.
Watch the 2023 book launch and hear from some of our expert authors.
This chapter explores the diverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on young fathers and the services that engage them. The qualitative longitudinal design of the study supported exploration of the complexities and dynamics of young fatherhood and their support needs at a time of major economic, social, and policy shifts during the pandemic. Also considered are the ways support services adapted their offers to sustain care for young men.
You can read the chapter open access.
Peer reviewed Journal Articles
This article considers how the unanticipated use of remote qualitative methods during the pandemic impacted processes of research connection and connectivity in qualitative (longitudinal) research. First, we consider questions of connection when seeking to (re)establish and retain connections with project stakeholders and marginalised participants through the pivot to remote methods. Second, we reflect on how processes of maintaining participation and interaction were impacted by practical and technological issues associated with the digitally mediated forms of connectivity available.
Available open access!
Learn about the Diverse Dads study where we co-created films led by young dads as peer researchers who sought to explore how to better support minoritised young dads.
Available open access!
Interdisciplinary social sciences literature on the value and significance of engaged fatherhood and father-inclusive approaches to practice for enhanced family outcomes have begun to reach a consensus. Yet there has been less attention to how research knowledge about fatherhood, including that which is co-produced with and for fathers, can be more effectively translated and embedded in practice and policy contexts. This article elaborates on a cumulative, empirically driven process that has established new relational ecologies between young fathers, multi-agency professionals and researchers. It illustrates how these ecologies, supported by longitudinal and co-creative research combined, are driving societal transformations through knowledge exchange and the instigation of new father-inclusive practice interventions that address the marginalisation of young fathers. The methodologies, including the co-creation of the Young Dads Collective and its impacts on young fathers and multi-agency professionals, are evaluated, confirming them as powerful and productive mechanisms for embedding father-inclusive practices within existing support and policy systems.
You can access the article via the journal webpage or contact us (!) to request a copy.
This article presents analyses from an international empirical study of young fatherhood in Sweden and the UK. Young fathers in both countries express an encouraging commitment to contemporary cultural imperatives for engaged fatherhood. However, differences in welfare and parental leave systems have a clear influence on the extent to which the young men in the respective countries can fulfil their parental commitments.
This article explores the impacts of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown policies on young fathers and their families in the UK and Sweden.
This briefing paper explores the dynamic mental health pathways of young fathers in their transition to fatherhood. We argue that they navigate a well-being spectrum over time as they adapt to their new identities and responsibilities where young fatherhood can be source of joy and pride. However, the struggles associated with young parenthood may tip some young men into periods of mental ill-health.
Two open access reports were developed from this Leeds Social Science Institute funded project, which was led by Dr Anna Tarrant between April 2016 and April 2017. The first is an evidence review of existing research about practice support for young fathers. The second reports on the Responding to Young Dads in a Different Way project and its key findings.
Early analyses of our findings from Wave One of interviews from the study. We explore the impacts of the Covid-19 crisis on young fathers and the professionals who supported them.
Briefing Paper One: Negotiating ‘earning’ and ‘caring’ through the COVID-19 crisis: change and continuities in the parenting and employment trajectories of young fathers
Briefing Paper Two: From social isolation to local support: Relational change and continuities for young fathers in the context of the COVID-19 crisis
Briefing Paper Three: Supporting at a distance: the challenges and opportunities of supporting young fathers through the COVID-19 pandemic
Policy Briefing Papers
Policy Brief 1
Key principles of father-inclusive practice
Policy Brief 2
Models of good practice for work with young fathers: cocreating knowledge about inclusive and intersectional approaches in the ‘Diverse Dads’ project
Policy Brief 3
Models of good practice for work with young fathers: the Grimsby Dads Collective case study
Written submissions for parliamentary inquiries
Reports, including evaluations and toolkits
The Following Young Fathers Further team conducted an evaluation of the North East Young Dads and Lads' new digital offer for young fathers called DigiDAD.
DigiDAD is a unique, pioneering e-learning parenting platform made by and for young fathers. First created during the COVID-19 pandemic, DigiDAD features evidence-informed content designed to support the informational requirements of young fathers.
The Diverse Dads team launched two open access reports based on the outcomes of the research as the ‘Diverse Dads Collaborative. These include key research findings and recommendations for good practice, as informed by the young fathers and professionals who participated in the study.
The pandemic has prompted many social scientists to rethink their research methods and adapt to researching in ways that accommodate social distancing rules. Telephone interviews offer a remote route to fieldwork but their value for researchers extends beyond the pandemic. This toolkit considers the role of telephone interviewing in qualitative research and the advantages and challenges of this method and attendant practical and ethical questions. We provide practical reflections around how to address the challenges associated with telephone interviews and draw on examples from current research.
The Think Dad! Toolkit, co-created with young fathers and developed with professionals and services in mind who want to improve how they work with young fathers.
“And I suppose it goes back to what we were saying before about behaviours, maybe the education side of stuff and the fact that men aren’t involved in those early conversations, you know, whether it is, I know they’re invited to come along to bumps to babies but I don’t know whether we go into the detail around some of that brain development side of stuff and things like that. Maybe that is the thing that really would change things. You know, if you were given all of that information about what happens to a child as they grow, in a scientific way, as easy to understand as possible, could be the thing that impacted on behaviour in the home. ”
“I know so many, so many people my age that have had, had kids and got married, you know, have a house and a family and everything and they’ve done it young, because they wanted to do it young and, you know, just people need to appreciate that, and the fact that, you know, the whole stay at home dad thing is not something to be ashamed of, you know, if you’re a dad and you wanna take your daughter out for the day, or you wanna take your kid out for the day on your own, well why is that frowned upon, why can’t you take your child out for the day ”
“ I definitely wasn’t.... How quick you can fall in love with a kid that you’ve only just met. Like, because obviously, like, you don’t, like, know it when it’s in the belly and stuff like that, but then, but when it’s out and you just, you sit there and your little lass, like that’s a little me. Like, you just fall in love straight away. ”
“We’re currently in touch with social services for two [dads] because they don’t understand why they can’t see their children because they haven’t been informed by social services, their partner. So there’s a massive communication breakdown with those young men, so that’s the main focus of what we’re dealing with at the minute.”
“I think both a mother and father combined, it’s communicating and both being on the same page of what’s best for your child or children, and for both, it’s just being there 100% for them and not, like, putting yourself first, it’s, you know, putting the child’s interests first... They’re essentially a blank slate really, they look up to you, they look up to you for, like, guidance on how to, how to behave and how to, you know, like grow and develop, and if you’re not putting their interests first, it can, you know, damage their social, emotional, mental health... ”
“Just the stigma, the fact that, you know, the, the judgemental looks me and my wife get when we go out with, you know, we go out with our daughter and we take the dog with us, and the judgey looks we get, you know, we’ve had, you know, we’ve heard comments from people and, you know, someone turned round and said, you know, ‘That’s obviously daddy’s money that’s bought that car,’ or, ‘Oh, he’s obviously only with her cause he’s got her knocked up and now he’s stuck with her and daddy’s paid for this, and daddy’s paid for that'.”
“It’s still the sense of judgement I get from other people when they find out that I have a child. And they say, ‘oh how old is she?’. I say, ‘oh she’s ten’. And they say, ‘oh how old are you?... And yeah so I think, I think my age, that has been a significant factor in it just because it is, it is outside the norm and I do recognise that but equally, as I said before, it’s, it’s not anyone’s business. You know?, it was a choice that I made to be involved in my child’s life”
“to talk about some of these topics that at times can get quite, you know, quite emotional, like it really wound me up that there was no, I went to a pub, or went to a restaurant and there was no baby changing in, I couldn’t change my daughter at all. I came out of there like, you know, like shaking, I was absolutely shaking, you know, quite upset by it... If the stigma can go or something about having, you know, male toilets, if you’ve got baby changing in the female toilets then you’ve gotta have it in the male toilets, you know. If it’s in the disabled toilet, it’s not a problem, it isn’t, you know, everyone can use them, but if it’s just in the female toilets, it’s wrong. It’s even borderline, you know, you could say it’s discriminating against you really, if you wanna go down that whole sort of 21st Century crap. ”
“[Speaking about support of young fathers] We’ve done a lot of kind of advocation and representing them, a lot of the time there’s involvement with statutory services. They don’t have the care of the young person, the care’s provided by the state or the mother, so we’ve attended lots of meetings with the young person to offer additional support and facilitated contact where necessary and offered just general emotional wellbeing, support, improving robustness and resilience, encouraging them to have as amicable relationship as possible. ”
“I feel…like privileged to be, like, a part of it. Is that the right word I was looking for? I dunno if that’s the right word, but I feel good about being a part, and it’s good to know, like, people are actually interested in fathers or young fathers, rather than we’re being, like, kind of a minority. ”
“…it’s just lush watching her do little things, like there, she’s just took her dummy out of her mouth and stuff and, like, she’s learnt to put it back in her mouth and stuff and it’s little things, when she plays with her teething toys and all, she gets, you can just see her learning stuff every day and it’s lush, it’s a privilege.”
“One of the most successful projects we ever did was an informal dads’ group, and it used to be on Saturdays […] they did what they wanted, they used to do things like breakfast, and they would have breakfast together and talk about dad stuff and where they were taking their kids. And that group was always really well attended because there was never an agenda. They were never judged. They were just there together. ”
“I’ve got more confident as being a dad. Like, I’ll take my daughter out by myself and that to places now, like I would never like to when I was, like, younger. Just people would judge you, like look at you with your tracksuit bottoms and then your pink buggy and that, think the state of him, but now, like, I take her out on me own, I take her to the parks and that, I take her, like, soft play. I took her to the football match the other week as well. …dads don’t get any preparation for this, they’ve just gotta do it when the baby’s here and it’s difficult. And then for me, when, like, when I first gotta, like, change my daughter’s nappy and that, there was way too much pressure on us, I didn’t have a bloody clue what I was doing and there was somebody watching us with a notebook, like cause you know how we were both young, just to make sure that we can look after the baby and that, and it’s way too much pressure when you don’t know what you’re doing ”
“Big big big changes.”
“if I can help put my, you know, just help a little bit with the stigma, or try and get it made a little bit more looked upon to have baby changing in male toilets, or not having just in female toilets, just little things like that, if I can help, if I can help with that, then I’ve done my bit, you know, I can’t stand here and moan about it if I haven’t, if I haven’t tried my bit to help.”
“I think it’s one a’ the best times that you could have in your life... Having a bairn. ”
“Maybe be more, like, persistent with, like, contact with my daughter and, like, maybe have been, like, more stern with, like, my daughter’s family and been, like, to say to them, like, this situation that has been going on isn’t right, like, there needs to be, like, improvements. Cause I feel like I definitely took a backseat and I didn’t say anything to them for, like, quite a while, when things were, like, not going my way, and I was just kind of, like, letting it slide. On some level I wish, like, I’d, like, stood my ground and, like, stood up for myself and my daughter and just said this isn’t right, needs to be a change. But obviously, that did end up happening eventually, cause I ended up taking them to court, so there is only, like people say, there is only so much a person can take, so.”
“I hope that my child grows up knowing that both her mam and her dad love her more than anything in the world and that we don’t hate each other and we’re glad that she’s here, like in the world. Yeah”
“…I’ve been told several times they don’t like separating a child from their mother, even social workers have told us that they don’t feel comfortable separating a child from their mother, but the way it is, it’s like they were comfortable separating a child from their father when they separated me for two year, and there was no dangers, there was no police records… …a woman can do everything a man can do, but mothers, they get a lot more rights when it comes to their kids than what fathers do. As I say, the courts, it makes a man feel like, I even said the other day when I rang a solicitor, I was really annoyed, to me, they look at us as I’m a father so I mean less to me kids. That’s the way a lot of this stuff works, they look at a father means less to his kids, a mother’s a lot more important in that sense. To me, I feel like a dad. I’ve never really looked at it specifically as a young dad. Obviously, when you’re talking about age wise then yeah, I am a young dad, yes. To me, a dad’s a dad. ”
“I was walking down the street and she says, ‘Who’s baby is that?’ And I says, ‘It’s mine,’ and then she literally eughed at us and threw them faces, ‘I wouldn’t dare let my kid have a baby that young’, and all that”
“... all through, like, the pregnancy with the mother of my child , we hid, hid that she was, like, having a baby, because we were terrified, cause she was so young, what people were gonna say, so we, like, kind of hid it, so I think it’s gonna be like a totally different experience if I have, like, another baby with anyone or owt again, because I’ll be able to have a baby shower, I’ll be able to do these things and actually celebrate it, rather than, like, hide it as, like, something to be negative about. Cause I was young.”
“I wanna, even though I’m not with, with my child's mother anymore, I wanna, I still, I don’t wanna make her life difficult or anything like that, I wanna support both her and my child as much as I can ”
“I wasn’t prepared. It came out of nowhere. I knew why it happened obviously [laughs]. But no, I don’t think I was prepared... Yeah. I think, I think especially for young parents, young dads, most, 99.9% of the time they are gonna be unprepared... it’s so unexpected they’re not gonna be prepared, you know, and I think that’s why I like this job is cause I think we’re, we’re very unique in a way to help them prepare without bombarding them with, like, so much information that they’re just gonna, like, forget. But also be there for them if they need anything on that professional level... it could be that they’re not emotionally stable or ready, they’re just worried, they could be thinking about school, GCSEs, other things happening in their lives. And, and then they could be thinking well, where do I go to find this information out, what am I supposed to do? It’s a whole panic. Yeah. Yeah, I think, I think, I think emotional is a big one cause especially hearing that for the first time, I didn’t know what to say. I didn’t know how to act. Yeah, just didn’t know how to act at all [laughs].”
“I’m not the best at saving money, but when it comes to my daughter, I know I need to have money there for her, I need to be able to sustain her. ”
“Just as long as they’re happy. I’ve always said in life as long as they’re happy doing what they’re doing. It’s keeping them safe and it, that’s all I really want really. ”
“Just believe in yourself I think. That’s one a’ the ones I struggled with when I was younger cause I was always like, ‘I can’t do this, I can’t do this’. Everything was, ‘oh I can’t do this. Oh I’m not gonna be able to do that’. I think just having a bit of belief in yourself and actually engaging in stuff and that, you know, life’s about spending time with your children, not what you can give to them. Just as long as they’re happy. I’ve always said in life as long as they’re happy doing what they’re doing. It’s keeping them safe and it, that’s all I really want really. ”
“…dads get rewarded for doing the general things. Say the mother takes them to school, it’s just a general thing, but a guy takes their kids to school, and they get praise for it, it’s like that’s wrong. Do you know what I mean? It’s like it’s 50/50, you both do what you can. And yeah, like guys do get praised for doing more of the sort of housework thing now and, I don’t know, it just doesn’t seem fair to women really in general, because I mean, they still do it and they don’t get any more praise or any less praise for doing what the guys do, if you know what I mean. …there is also a bit of a stigma around it, I mean you see some parents, like males, going to school, and a lot of women or a lot of people think they haven’t got a clue, so they’ll try and sort of explain what you have to do, where you have to go, even though say you’ve been doing it for ten years. ”
“ I think being, being present and seeing your child for who they are I think is the most important. Like, not necessarily being present, but when you are with your child at least being present and also just to, when I say see your child for who they are, I think I mean you don’t, cause a lot of parents expect their child to be certain things or like, ‘Oh, I react like this, or my spouse, or their parent reacts like this, so they’re gonna react like it,’ but actually try to see what it is that you get from, like how, who they are, which is super interesting cause they’re a mix of everything. But like to actually see that and not, not put expectations in that..”